Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources that are naturally replenished on a human timescale.[clarification needed] It includes sources such as sunlight, wind, the movement of water, and geothermal heat. Although most renewable energy sources are sustainable, some are not. For example, some biomass sources are considered unsustainable at current rates of exploitation. Renewable energy often provides energy for electricity generation to a grid, air and water heating/cooling, and stand-alone power systems. Renewable energy technology projects are typically large-scale, but they are also suited to rural and remote areas and developing countries, where energy is often crucial in human development. Renewable energy is often deployed together with further electrification, which has several benefits: electricity can move heat or objects efficiently, and is clean at the point of consumption. In addition, electrification with renewable energy is more efficient and therefore leads to significant reductions in primary energy requirements.
Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.
Renewable energy stands in contrast to fossil fuels, which are being used far more quickly than they are being replenished. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. Rapid deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, and technological diversification of energy sources, would result in significant energy security and economic benefits. Solar and wind power have got much cheaper. In some cases it will be cheaper to transition to these sources as opposed to continuing to use the current, inefficient, fossil fuels. It would also reduce environmental pollution such as air pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels, and improve public health, reduce premature mortalities due to pollution and save associated health costs that could amount to trillions of dollars annually. Multiple analyses of decarbonization strategies have found that quantified health benefits can significantly offset the costs of implementing these strategies.
Electrical energy storage is a collection of methods used to store electrical energy. Electrical energy is stored during times when production (especially from intermittent sources such as wind power, tidal power, solar power) exceeds consumption, and returned to the grid when production falls below consumption. Pumped-storage hydroelectricity accounts for more than 85% of all grid power storage. Batteries are increasingly being deployed for this and for grid ancillary services and for domestic storage.
Geothermal power is cost effective, reliable, sustainable, and environmentally friendly, but has historically been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have expanded the range and size of viable resources, especially for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are usually much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels. As a result, geothermal power has the potential to help mitigate global warming if widely deployed in place of fossil fuels.
Renewable electricity generation by wind and solar is variable. This results in reduced capacity factor and may require keeping some gas-fired power plants or other dispatchable generation on standby until there is enough energy storage, demand response, grid improvement, and/or base load power from non-intermittent sources like hydropower, nuclear power or bioenergy.
Whether nuclear power should be considered a form of renewable energy is an ongoing subject of debate. Statutory definitions of renewable energy usually exclude many present nuclear energy technologies, with the notable exception of the state of Utah. Dictionary-sourced definitions of renewable energy technologies often omit or explicitly exclude mention of nuclear energy sources, with an exception made for the natural nuclear decay heat generated within the Earth.
The most common fuel used in conventional nuclear fission power stations, uranium-235 is "non-renewable" according to the Energy Information Administration, the organization however is silent on the recycled MOX fuel. Similarly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory does not mention nuclear power in its "energy basics" definition.
The GeGaLo index of geopolitical gains and losses assesses how the geopolitical position of 156 countries may change if the world fully transitions to renewable energy resources. Former fossil fuels exporters are expected to lose power, while the positions of former fossil fuel importers and countries rich in renewable energy resources is expected to strengthen. Sourcing of required materials, ownership of key infrastructure assets and the design of grids all require geopolitics consideration.
Prior to the development of coal in the mid 19th century, nearly all energy used was renewable. The oldest known use of renewable energy, in the form of traditional biomass to fuel fires, dates from more than a million years ago. The use of biomass for fire did not become commonplace until many hundreds of thousands of years later. Probably the second oldest usage of renewable energy is harnessing the wind in order to drive ships over water. This practice can be traced back some 7000 years, to ships in the Persian Gulf and on the Nile. From hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times. Moving into the time of recorded history, the primary sources of traditional renewable energy were human labor, animal power, water power, wind, in grain crushing windmills, and firewood, a traditional biomass.
Abstract:In low-income and developing countries, inadequate weather monitoring systems adversely affect the capacity of managing natural resources and related risks. Low-cost and IoT devices combined with a large diffusion of mobile connection and open technologies offer a possible solution to this problem. This research quantitatively evaluates the data quality of a non-conventional, low-cost and fully open system. The proposed novel solution was tested for a duration of 8 months, and the collected observations were compared with a nearby authoritative weather station. The experimental weather station is based in Arduino and transmits data through the 2G General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) to the istSOS which is a software to set-up a web service to collect, share and manage observations from sensor networks using the Sensor Observation Service (SOS) standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The results demonstrated that this accessible solution produces data of appropriate quality for natural resource and risk management.Keywords: 4onse; big data; Monitoring; istSOS; low-cost; OGC; SOS
The CMC 356 is the universal solution for testing all generations and types of protection relays. Its powerful six current sources (three-phase mode: up to 64 A / 860 VA per channel) with a great dynamic range, make the unit capable of testing even high-burden electromechanical relays with very high power demands.
r8brain is a free audio sample rate converter application. It was designed to allow both amateur and professional users to perform high-quality sample rate conversion of uncompressed PCM WAV files. For example, if your project WAV file was recorded or saved as 48000 (or 96000) sample rate file, and you need it to bring to MP3 or CD format, then you will likely need to convert it to 44100 sample rate first. This utility application will help you to perform such conversion using its high-quality algorithm. Virtually any source and destination sample rates are supported by this converter, thus permitting non-conventional uses.
Folx is a powerful download manager and torrent client in one. Just search for a file or input a URL, and Folx will download whatever file might be on the other end, be it music, video, or a book. Folx can also be up to 20 times faster than regular downloaders, since it breaks down the file in up to 20 parts and downloads them separately at the same time.
Incapacitated and Alone: Health Care Decision-Making for the Unbefriended ElderlyThis 2003 publication is now available as a free pdf download. It presents the findings of a ground-breaking study aimed at improving medical decision-making on behalf of older patients incapable of making their own decisions and lacking surrogate decision-makers.
The significant employee ownership of Google has made us what we are today. Because of our employee talent, Google is doing exciting work in nearly every area of computer science. We are in a very competitive industry where the quality of our product is paramount. Talented people are attracted to Google because we empower them to change the world; Google has large computational resources and distribution that enables individuals to make a difference. Our main benefit is a workplace with important projects, where employees can contribute and grow. We are focused on providing an environment where talented, hard working people are rewarded for their contributions to Google and for making the world a better place.
In case Termite is not what you are looking for, some alternatives are:The Serial Port Monitorby Eltima Software has the ability to sniff communication from another program(without requiring a special cable) and the ability to monitor multiple serialports at the same time. Serial Port Monitor handles RS485/422 as well as RS232,and supports Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII protocols.The HyperTerminal applet that comes with Microsoft Windows, or the third-partyHyperTerminal Private Edition.MCS Electronics providesthe free "simpleterm" utility amongst its downloads. (Choose "Downloads", then"BASCOM". Then select the "MCS Simple Terminal" from the list.)YAT, two freewareserial terminals are listed on the site of LakeviewResearch: a small and simple terminal by Dieter Fauth and a full-featuredterminal by Maettu."Terminal" by Br@y++, a free terminal that supports text and hexadecimaldisplay, macros, scripting, graphic visualization and more."Termie",which started as an open-source clone of Termite, but now has some features thatTermite lacks, while lacking some of Termite's features. 2b1af7f3a8